Nuclear war, how to escape from the nuclear bomb? “Iodine tablets, stay underground, do not go outside for 12 hours”

Rising war tensions in Ukraine have raised the level of world alarm and raised one’s dream Nuclear war. In a similar context, many wonder what will happen in the worst case scenario: Beyond the emergency plans already laid out by the authorities – Italy has one – It is possible to save yourself Since the explosion of the nuclear device? If so, how? Brooke Butmeyer, Business Insider, a physicist and radiation and emergency specialist at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, said, “Knowing what to do after an event like this can actually save hundreds of thousands of people from radiation sickness or death.” Here are his tips.

What happens if a nuclear bomb explodes

All nuclear explosions are characterized by certain characteristic effects: a Flash of lightOne Fire ballPulse of nuclear radiation, a shock wave, A heat wave, A radioactive fall. The heat wave lasts for several seconds and is intense Burns at km Away from the scene of the explosion. The shock wave can reach even miles and cause enormous damage, causing vehicles, buildings and debris to fall: when an atomic bomb explodes almost all buildings within a radius 3 km Except for the reinforced ones, which will be destroyed. Instead the fall comes last – 15 minutes after the eruption – but they are dangerous.

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Fireball and light

The explosion of the device produces ten thousand times more heat than a millionth of a second above the surface of the sun. It creates one Fire ball It can reach a radius of a few hundred meters and not everyone in this area is likely to survive. If you are lucky and you are far away, do not watch the first suggestive explosion Lose your sight immediately Or later problems (especially cataracts). Explosive light emits large amounts of energy in the form of X-rays and gamma rays (invisible but very harmful).

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Where to take refuge: Choose basement buildings and stay away from windows

To escapeShock wave Running or getting in the car is useless: seek immediate shelter, for example, in a tunnel or basement of a building that is poorly fitted and without windows (can open or explode) “When I think of where I am going I will go to protect myself from the immediate effects, especially the shock wave, of what we do to the hurricane , ”Said Butmeyer. This refuge will also be useful in protecting youHeat waveIt moves slower than the shock wave but reaches greater distances – almost everything is there At 6 km From the eruption center it catches fire and people can be affected The third level burns It is dangerous if they are not given refuge.

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Stand inside a Building Part of it can protect you from the radiation generated by the explosion. Radiation damages cells by altering their genetic material (DNA), which restricts the cells’ ability to regenerate, fight infection, or perform other functions that can lead to serious illness or death. Human health risks occur beyond 100 millisieverts, which is an explosion 10 kilotons Determines the amount of radiation equivalent to 750 millisieverts On a perimeter 2 km (Moderate damage zone): 100 times more than the average American is affected each year (neutral and medical) and if it lasts for several hours it can make a person sick. Beyond 30 km, the risk to human health is minimal.

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Radiation fall

If you have escaped from fireball, heat wave and shock waves, you will have to face it Radiation fall I.e., falling to the ground of fission products (radioisotopes) in the form of dust, salt and sand particles. In regeneration these particles are further decomposed and emitted Gamma rays, An invisible but high-energy form of light that can penetrate deep into the body and cause significant radiation damage. This “Rain” of radioactive material The most dangerous starts roughly After 15 minutes Explosion and can extend up to km from the place of explosion – powders are carried by air -. For this you have to stay Accommodation for at least 12-24 hours. If the first refuge you find is not safe and you need to move, it is best to do so within the first 15 minutes following the eruption. However, Buddemeier says, “It’s best to avoid going out altogether, as there is a risk of widespread fires and debris on the street.”

Iodine tablets

During a nuclear explosion, iodine 131 is released into the air, which can cause thyroid cancer, especially as it grows. To prevent it, iodine tablets are used, which should be given priority to children and pregnant or lactating women, while not recommended for those over 40 years of age. This medication should only be taken if there is a real risk of exposure to radiation.

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“Refugees and Stay Together”

For the expert, the best thing is: “Stay inside, to the music”, go to your Fallout shelter, stay for 12-24 hours and always get official instructions on the radio, phone or other device on which route to take to avoid exits and falls. Physics adds, “Fall victims are completely preventable.”

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